Soil pollution: What it is, causes, consequences and solutions

Soil pollution has been established as an important alteration that is reflected directly on the earth's surface, from different causes that are estimated to worsen over time if the respective measures are not taken.

Soil pollution: What it is, causes, consequences and solutions
What is soil pollution?

Soil pollution consists of the degradation given in the quality of the earth's surface associated with multiple causes; but mainly generated by chemical substances. On the other hand, this has caused an increase in the concentration of said substances; which mostly relates to existence from the human being.

The application of various chemical substances to the planet's lands; They leave many consequences that make the planet determine in a polluted environment, but which in turn depends on the concentration of compounds it has.

It is recognized as soil contamination: when substances encompass solid, liquid or gaseous wastes within the earth's surface anywhere; whatever the origin of the causes.

A pollution that goes without delay

By contaminating the soil, it is affected from the edaphic biota to the plants; flora and all species of fauna, without neglecting human health which is greatly affected according to the severity of the contamination.

The soil can be directly ascribed to what is harmful when it is around the rupture of underground storage tanks; as well as when there is constant exposure of pesticides, leaks and in turn; blind wells given by the massive accumulation of different types of industrial or radioactive products.

On the other hand, there is often soil contamination left from underground tar deposits; really harmful substance for different types of land surfaces across the planet.

In the same way, those really powerful chemical substances for soil alterations are affected, such as oil; solvents, pesticides and also heavy metals.

All these products are creating a phenomenon that is directly related to industrialization and its direct effects on land; coming to contaminate it in different intensities.

To start solving the details that go into soil contamination, you need skills like geology, hydrography, and chemistry; because they are sciences that know the depth of the problem and know how to work together reaching the root not only of the problem; but also the recommended solution.

Causes of soil contamination

Nuclear accidents

As Chernobyl did, other nuclear accidents have also been shown to be the main cause of soil contamination; as well as the air and the hydrography of the planet; Considering highly polluting agents and that they must have a limit for current times.

Atomic tests

One of those that has most polluted the earth's surface are those made by the British; since they are the ones that generate that the soils cannot access future decontamination processes; even if it takes thousands of years to achieve this effect.

Agricultural technology

This type of technology has been harmful since its discovery; therefore, both the use of sewage and the excessive and indiscriminate use of chemical substances such as pesticides and fertilizers; They leave a great product of contamination in the soil , especially in those of great fertility prepared for cultivation.

Urban garbage disposal

In this case, the predisposing source for soil contamination is the inadequate use or lack of those systems completely dedicated to urban waste disposal; because it is what certifies that chemical substances do not address the different types of soils and with it contamination is spreading throughout the planet ; knowing that it is the waste that causes alteration in these surfaces, for the long term.

Plastics dumping

This is another factor that lends itself to extensive soil contamination; Due to the fact that many of the rocks that exist in different areas of the planet consist of heavy metals, such as lead, nickel or chromium, and they are what cause soils to transform under the process of weathering, and although; they are many times profitable; most of the occasions are highly harmful to health.

Ground compaction

This refers to the compaction that usually occurs in the soil when it is compressed to be able to make structures on it or also when there is a massive amount of livestock that walks over the area on a recurring basis.

Also it is generating that the plants do not flourish and causes the roots to be completely damaged; leading to the contamination of this type of soil being reflected as infertile soil.

Consequences of soil contamination

Removable vegetation

The primary consequence that unravels after the problem of soil contamination has direct action against the vegetation ; because the plants are the first to be degraded when facing an unsuitable soil profile.

With the decrease of all kinds of plants: the variety of species and with it the food chain is progressively deteriorating, reaching a point of such extremism that the life of living beings becomes impossible.

And it is a situation that really happens, it has a role today even though many people are not aware of it. As poverty in vegetation progresses; the species will try to survive despite the natural process that they require for their survival; but without actions taken, the worst will come; helping to destroy not only the soils, but also the ecosystem as a whole.

Fauna in extinction

With the difficulty of maintaining the vegetation and any type of flora, it also implies having difficulty in having potable water; an aspect that makes animal species suffer irreparable damage belonging to their procreation chain; having another aspect in favor for the reduction of the ecosystem.

Landscape degradation

The loss in the value of the soil, allows there to be a place for landscape degradation; in addition to influencing poverty in agricultural activities; determining that it is a useless earth, which leads to complicate life within the planet.

Dangerous silence

The most tragic and dangerous consequences of soil pollution; they are those that are generated silently; because they are attacking all living beings that inhabit it, equally. Many of them are reflected in examples of radioactive leaks that generate imminent and direct damage to the soil; consolidating the loss of agriculture and also of livestock and fishing.

Solutions for soil contamination

Organic products

It is the main thing that you have to take into account, because although; although they are more expensive products in relation to those chemicals; They are the ones that help to optimally conserve the soil and the entire habitat in general.

They serve to promote a much more organic production than normal and thus prevent the ecosystem from losing its natural meaning and with it, life.


Recycling is the fundamental basis to start caring for the planet and with it, the soil. Go preferring glass products; since it is a material that requires little time to disintegrate; being the opposite of plastic, which is the main polluting material in the soil.

It is also recommended to use reusable packaging such as cotton bags; paper bags, among others that are easy and fast to disintegrate. Also opt for cloth napkins and handkerchiefs ; both for personal use and for use in the kitchen, so you will be starting to collaborate with the environment.

Preventive agriculture

In agriculture you can also apply changes that combat soil contamination and is the regulation of the use of fertilizers. Likewise; today there are biological fertilizers; that unlike chemicals they do not have a great power against the environment; rather, they increase fertility without removing its other natural components.

The same can be achieved from pesticides and fungicides that now come with a biological supplement, fully helping land surfaces and fighting deforestation.

Use manure as a fertilizer and fungicide and make full use of the elements that nature can give you, having the benefit of not perceiving any side effects; just as its chemical counterpart does, leaving an infinite number of consequences in any type of soil.


Teach other people to collaborate with the care of the ecosystem and the soil; it is a really important step; because as you have started, others can do it in the same way and thus more help would be generated and with this; many more flattering results.

Remember that in unity there is strength and the more we unite to protect the integrity of the planet, not only will the soils have good productions; but also the other accessories that today are also in danger.

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