Aquatic ecosystems: What they are and classification

It is well known that the planet always had possibilities of life from water; when its origin was based on the Pangea; while the glorious hydrogen and oxygen atoms came together to give life to all species.

Aquatic ecosystems: What they are and classification
Once the planet took 70% in water, it was when what is now known as aquatic ecosystems were consolidated.

What are aquatic ecosystems?

Aquatic ecosystems are those environments that are composed of living things and abiotic elements included in a marine space in which they interact with each other and make it; the ideal environment for your habitat.

The ecosystem of this type not only present in salt water and sea bed; They are also included in freshwater. They contain different types of animal and plant species that depend on the integrity of the aquatic environment to survive in the best conditions.

How are aquatic ecosystems classified?

This type of ecosystem is not unique; since they come to be classified into two varieties.


These ecosystems are identified for having in their integrity oceans, seas and marshes; thus being the most stable means that are in accordance with the development of life; in relation to those belonging to terrestrial freshwater ecosystems; that although they can be there for a certain time; it is not their preferred habitat.

Despite the fact that life was born from water on the planet for billions of years; today it continues to be the main source for the development of life and all the actions necessary to survive.

The mystery lies in the fact that there are an immense number of species that are not only on the surfaces of the seas and oceans , but also those that are found in the intense depths of these waters; respectively; many of which have not been fully discovered.

Light, the source of life and production

Due to the variability of some aspects, marine ecosystems differ depending on the area; this is because depending on there will be high or low temperatures; as well as some areas with much more water salinity than others; situations that make some species compatible to survive in this environment, while others do not and it is then; where they will try to look for the conditions that their body considers suitable for integrity and life.

On the surface of marine ecosystems, light has a maximum penetration of only 200 meters; making the plants that are within this range of distance can do the photosynthesis process given the availability of sunlight that originate natural light.

However, after 200 meters are exceeded from the surface, it is known as aphotic region; because there is no availability of natural light coming from the solar rays and therefore; There are no photosynthetic processes in plants in this specific zone.

Species that vary according to conditions

Within the aquatic ecosystem totally marine species are included, that is to say those like whales; seals, sharks and manatees; as well as all types of fish plus the small organisms that are part of the complementary environment of the ecosystem , such as plankton; algae and also coral reefs.

In these cases it must be taken into consideration that; as there is less light, therefore there is less primary production, affecting the limitation of inorganic nutrients.

Nonetheless; in small areas of the depths there are outcrops that develop spontaneously and are the ones that largely allow the food chain between species; They manage to be preserved regardless of the links and therefore are the most recommended points for fishing.


Unlike the previous ones, freshwater ecosystems belong to those made up of rivers; lakes, swamps, lagoons, among others similar.

Each of them maintains its importance in that they contain species of all styles and colors; reason why there is an immense fauna variety that determines the maintenance of the trophic chain in all the links; certainly.

Apart from the animals themselves that belong to the qualities and characteristics of water; there are those amphibian species that are from both ecosystems; both aquatic and terrestrial.

In addition, it has a wide range of possibilities in regards to vegetation;  being largely one of the main features that authentically identifies and points to this type of natural environment.

Regarding the animal species of this ecosystem, it is known that around 41% of the fish in many variants; they manage to find themselves in this type of ecosystem. In the same way; linking terrestrial ecosystems with aquatic ecosystems, knowing that 70% of the planet is water; It is described that the largest number of natural environments belong to freshwater ecosystems.

What are the types of freshwater ecosystems?


It is the ecosystem reflected in still waters such as lagoons or wetlands. 3 zones are distinguished which are identified as shallow; which is full of warmth by the solar rays, an intermediate zone in which there are limits of reach of the solar light but there can be photosynthesis and the third; the deep zone that is the one that begins to be cold because the arrival of sunlight is restricted.


They are those ecosystems centered in the waters in constant movement ; such as rivers, streams and ravines . In these, the movement is what makes the waters relate to the atmosphere, once they make contact with the surface on their surface; doing so that basically it does not vary as much, as it does in the lentic ecosystems.

For all the above; it is essential to know the details of each of the aquatic ecosystems; because in this way it is possible to identify which are the animal species compatible with each one of them and at the same time the type of vegetation that reigns in this  natural environment.

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